- Blood transfusions and blood products using unscreened blood (in most developed countries blood has been screened since about 1990)
- Mother to infant during childbirth (very common in hepatitis B, less common in hepatitis C)
- Needlestick injury in healthcare settings
- Sharing equipment for injecting drugs
- Sharing razors, toothbrushes or other household articles
- Tattooing and body piercing if done using unsterilised equipment which have been previously used on an infected person
- Unprotected intercourse with an infected person
Getting vaccinated is the best way of preventing hepatitis B infection. More than one billion doses of the hepatitis B vaccine have been used since the early 1980s and it has been shown to be effective in approximately 95% of cases. There is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C.